Do not be discouraged by the long list of things you MUST know to be a data scientist or data analyst in tech. Google Search is your friend. All of these skills (hard and soft skills) are learnable on your own if you make time to practice. I've also listed some paid online tutorials and bootcamps on the Resources page.
First I will assume you've done some deep self-assessments of your accomplishments, transferable skills and strengths and weaknesses. As cheesy as it seems, personality tests like the Myers Briggs or Strengths Finder can give you direction when making a career transition. Make sure data science is a career that fits your strengths and work style.
Timelines If you already have a background in either coding or statistics (mine was in statistics), then finding a job in data science is a standard 3 - 6 month process. If you are making a total career change and starting from scratch to learn both statistics and coding, you might have a full year of practicing skills and networking before attempting interviews.
Needed Skills Before any interview, make sure you're confident with
SQL, R and Python
Statistics - all the basics, plus some advanced topics to discuss at a high level
Machine Learning - lots of buzzwords but you need to know them
Probabilities - at least up to a point where you come across conditional probability and Bayes' Theorem
Good communication skills
Advanced Topics and Nice to Haves
Analytical thinking about business problems -
Most interviews are something like
A phone call with a recruiter and/or whomever is doing the hiring
A take home data test
An onsite interview that usually lasts 3 - 5 hours, depending on the company, where they will have several 30 minute interviews with different people covering different topics. You'll be asked softball "culture fit" questions, as well as some technical code writing questions either on a computer or whiteboard (SQL, Python, R) and answer stats/probabilities questions
Check out the rest of this blog for resources on tutorials, books, blogs, and general networking information. This should be plenty to get you started!